# History of Polytope

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 Revision 5 . . (edit) September 8, 2001 3:49 am by Zundark Revision 3 . . (edit) May 27, 2001 1:40 am by Josh Grosse Revision 1 . . (edit) May 27, 2001 1:20 am by Josh Grosse

Difference (from prior major revision) (minor diff, author diff)

Changed: 1c1
 The terminology surrounding polygons, polyhedra, and polytopes is confusing, and different people often mean different things with the terms. Here polytope is being taken to mean polygons, polyhedra, and higher dimensional versions of the same. There is a very nice formal definition in terms of decompositions, thanks (I think) to Alexandroff, that I'd like to include.
 The terminology surrounding polygons, polyhedra, and polytopes is confusing, and different people often mean different things with the terms. Here polytope is being taken to mean polygons, polyhedra, and higher dimensional versions of the same. There is a very nice formal definition in terms of decompositions, thanks (I think) to Alexandroff, that I'd like to include.

Changed: 3c3
 One special kind of polytope is the convex hull of a set of points. Roughly speaking this is the set of all possible weighted averages, with weights going from zero to one, of the same; the points are called the vertices of the hull. Of particular importance is the case where the points are all linearly independent (that is, no s-plane contains more than s of them), in which case the convex hull is called an r-simplex (where r is the number of points).
 One special kind of polytope is the convex hull of a finite set of points. Roughly speaking this is the set of all possible weighted averages, with weights going from zero to one, of the same; the points are called the vertices of the hull. Of particular importance is the case where the points are all linearly independent (that is, no s-plane contains more than s of them), in which case the convex hull is called an r-simplex (where r is the number of points).

Changed: 5c5
 For instance a 1-simplex is a line segment, a 2-simplex is a triangle, and a 3-simplex is a tetrahedron (in each case here with interior, although the word simplex is also used to mean other variations). Note an r-simplex will not fit into an (r-1)-plane ((r-1)-dimensional space, if you prefer). Note also that any subset containing s of the r points defines a subsimplex, called an s-face. 0-faces are just the vertices and the one r-face is the simplex itself. 1-faces are called edges.
 For instance a 1-simplex is a line segment, a 2-simplex is a triangle, and a 3-simplex is a tetrahedron (in each case here with interior, although the word simplex is also used to mean other variations). Note an r-simplex will not fit into an (r-1)-plane ((r-1)-dimensional space, if you prefer). Note also that any subset containing s of the r points defines a subsimplex, called an s-face. 0-faces are just the vertices and the one r-face is the simplex itself.

Changed: 18c18,30
 Ok, more than enough formality. What does this let us build?
 Ok, more than enough formality. What does this let us build? Let's start with 1-polytopes. Then we have the line segment, of course, and anything that you can get by joining line segments end-to-end: ` *----* *----* *----* *-* *----*----* | | | X | * *----* *-* * ` Now, if we restrict ourselves to forms with two segments meeting at each corner (so not the last), we get a topological curve, called a polygonal curve. You can categorize these as open or closed, depending on whether the ends match up, and as simple or complex, depending on whether they intersect themselves. Closed polygonal curves are called polygons. Simple polygons are especially interesting because, as Jordan curves, they have a single distinct interior. This is, as it turns out, a 2-polytope (as you can see in the third example above), and these are often treated interchangeably with their boundary, the word polygon referring to either. Now we can rinse and repeat! Joining polygons two to an edge (1-face) gives you a polyhedral surface, called a skew polygon when open and a polyhedron when closed. Simple polyhedra are interchangeable with their interiors, which are 3-polytopes that can be used to build 4-dimensional forms (sometimes called polychora), and so on to higher polytopes. Later I plan to add some details here about regular polytopes, but this should be fine for now.

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