StanislawLem was born in Lvov, PolanD in 1921 (now Lviv, UkrainE?) as the son of a physician. He studied medicine at Lwów University and at Jagiellonian University in CracoW?, but his studies were interrupted by World War II. During the war and NazI? occupation Lem worked as a car mechanic and welder, and was a member of the resistance fighting against the Germans. Toward the end of the war PolanD was occupied by the RedArmy? and the country was closely controlled by the SovietUnion for the next 50 years. In 1946 Lem moved to CracoW?. After finishing his studies StanislawLem received his MD. He worked a research assistant in a scientific institution and started to write stories on his spare time.