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[Home]Doctor of Philosophy

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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) was originally a degree granted by a university to a learned individual who had achieved the approval of his peers and who had demonstrated a long and productive career in a learned field. The appelation of "Doctor" was usually awarded only when the individual was in middle age. It indicated a life dedicated to learning, to knowledge, and to the spread of knowledge.

Nowadays, the title Ph.D. is granted at the end of [graduate school]? in the sciences and humanities?. Some ability to carry out original research has to be documented by producing a dissertation?, and defending it before a committee. The degree is a prerequisite for permanent employment as a university teacher or as a researcher in some sciences.

In some countries, the corresponding degree is simply called "Doctor", or "Doctor of Natural Sciences", "Doctor of Social Sciences" etc.

See also: M.D.?, J.D.?


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Last edited December 18, 2001 3:39 am by AxelBoldt (diff)